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JOUR 390: Freedom of the Press

Chicago/Turabian citation

The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition (official complete ebook)

Turabian Quick Guide from the University of Chicago Press

Find Chicago style citation information and a citation generator through Purdue University's Online Writing Lab.

Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a list of sources (books, articles, websites, etc.) with short paragraph about each source. An annotated bibliography is sometimes a useful step before drafting a research paper, or it can stand alone as an overview of the research available on a topic.

Each source in the annotated bibliography has a citation - the information a reader needs to find the original source, in a consistent format to make that easier. These consistent formats are called citation styles.  The most common citation styles are MLA (Modern Language Association) for humanities, and APA (American Psychological Association) for social sciences.

Annotations are about 4 to 6 sentences long (roughly 150 words), and address:

  •     Main focus or purpose of the work
  •     Usefulness or relevance to your research topic 
  •     Special features of the work that were unique or helpful
  •     Background and credibility of the author
  •     Conclusions or observations reached by the author
  •     Conclusions or observations reached by you


Annotations versus Abstracts

Many scholarly articles start with an abstract, which is the author's summary of the article to help you decide whether you should read the entire article.  This abstract is not the same thing as an annotation.  The annotation needs to be in your own words, to explain the relevance of the source to your particular assignment or research question.

Annotated Bibliography Examples

To see several types of annotated bibliography formatting examples, including Chicago style citation, see OWL at Purdue Annotated Bibliography.

Citation Managers - Zotero Bib and EndNote Basic (EndNoteWeb)

Citation managers are software that keep track of your sources and will help format your citations in a variety of styles.

  • Zotero Bib -  is a free service that helps you build a bibliography instantly from any computer or device, without creating an account or installing any software. See FAQ at https://zbib.org/faq.   It is also helpful for its feature to save as an .RIS file that can be imported into a more robust citation manager such as EndNote Web.  Zotero Bib APA 7th style will automatically correct for sentence case capatilization.
  • EndNote Web (currently called EndNote Basic , EndNote Online) - free to CSUN students, staff, and faculty; integrates with MS Word and several browsers (IE,Chrome, Firefox); can export references directly from many databases.   You can contact EndNote help desk, Monday-Friday, 6 am (Pacific time) - 5pm at 800-336-4474. [Press 4 for Technical Support, press 1 for Endnote] The drawback  you need to have internet access,  Check and improve, if needed, your saved records and prepare your list of references before you start writing your paper.   (https://www.youtube.com/user/EndNoteTraining/videos