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RTM 402: Models of Play, Leisure, and Recreation

Professor Lawrence Luo

APA Style Guides, 7th edition

This guide is a quick introduction to the American Psychological Association (APA) 7th Edition Style for citations, basic format, and sample annotated bibliography. Please be sure to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th edition and/or the APA Style website for additional details.

There is a print copy available  in Reserves (4th floor, east wing) for a two hour checkout.

Most Notable changes from APA 6th edition to 7th edition

  1. Publisher location is NOT included for book citations.

  2. In-text citations from works with three or more authors is shortened from the first time mentioned to (Hernandez et al., 2020)

  3. Include up to 20 authors in the reference.

  4. DOIs need to be formatted as clickable URLs such as https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1400256   

  5. Don’t include “Retrieved from” in front of a URL unless a retrieval date is needed.

  6. For website citation include the website name, unless it is the same as the author.

  7. Clear guidelines for citing media contributors that are not authors or editors.

Media type

     Include as author

 Film 

 Director 

TV series

Executive Producers

 Podcast 

Host or Executive Producer

Webinar 

Instructor 

Online Streaming Video

Person/Group who uploaded the video

  1. Citation examples are provided for different types of online sources including: podcasts, youtube videos, and social media posts.  

  2. Use the singular “they” as a gender neutral pronoun instead of he or she.

  3. Clear format guidelines are provided for student and professional research papers.

  4. More flexibility in font choices/size and include:

    1. Calibri 11

    2. Arial 11

    3. Lucida Sans Unicode 10

    4. Times New Roman 12

    5. Georgia 11

  5. The running head on the title page no longer includes the words Running head. It now only includes the title of the paper and the page number.

  6. Student papers do not need to include a running head. (Unless specified from your instructor)

  7. At the end of a sentence, use one space instead of two.

Citing Images

  • All visual illustrations/images should be labeled Figure, and then numbered consecutively in italics.  (ex. Figure 1).
  • When referring the figure (in-text), make sure to capitalize Figure.  Do not refer to the image as “the figure below” or “the figure above.

  • Image should be centered in the paper.

  • Image captions include title of image and a brief explanation.  Also provide source and copyright information.

  •  Do not put a period after the URL

You will need to provide as much information as possible.

  • Name of creator/creator/username of the image.

  • Role of the creator in parenthesis such as artist, sculptor, etc.

  • Year of creation in parenthesis. If there is no date available put (n.d.)

  • Title of image (in italics). If there is no title, create a description of the work.

  • Type of work (ex. illustration, map, cartoon, photograph, etc)

  • Retrieved from URL or database name

Last-name, first-name initial. (Role of the creator). (Year of creation). Title of image or description of work. [Type of work]. Retrieved from URL/database

Example:

The aurora borealis (see Figure 1) is a natural multicolor light display produced by solar wind particles seem in high latitude regions

Image Caption

Figure 1. Aurora Over Calgary and Spokane. This figure illustrates the aurora borealis aboard the International Space Station.  Image credit: NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center via Flickr.

Works Cited

NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. (2012) Aurora Over Calgary and Spokane. [Digital Image].  Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/nasamarshall/14743833915/

Why Should I Cite

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[Why We Cite]

Do you think the only reason your professor asks you to cite your work is because they suspect you of plagiarism? Wrong! Here are four reasons why you should cite!

  1. Broaden Your Horizons

    1. Your professors ask you to use a variety of sources because they know that your own thinking and ideas will be enhanced when you consult the ideas of previous writers on a topic. When you do this in your assignment, the reader will get the sense that you’re joining the conversation, that you respect other thinkers, and that you’re adding something new to the conversation.

  2. Demonstrate a Sense of Debate  

    1. Don’t only uses sources that support your argument. Sometimes the most effective sources that don’t agree with your point of view. Introducing concepts from sources that show a varying points of view, puts your ideas in a more interesting and contested light. By doing this you show that there is something worth debating or analyzing further.

  3. Give Credit

    1. Just like you would want credit for your own work, writing or ideas, other writers deserve credit for their own work. Recognition is usually the only reward for scholarship. More importantly, giving credit allows your reader to recognize your contribution and ideas.

  4. Further Research on a Topic

    1. Your work on a topic helps further research on that subject. You do this by building and extending on the work of the writers you cite in your assignment. One person’s sources can therefore be an invaluable contribution to another’s research.

 

Help with Writing & Revising

Learning Resource Center Logo

For help with editing and polishing your paper, make an appointment with a writing tutor at the Learning Resource Center.

lrc@csun.edu

818-677-2033

Oviatt Library 3rd floor, east wing