This guide is a quick introduction to the American Psychological Association (APA) 7th Edition Style for citations, basic format, and sample annotated bibliography. Please be sure to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th edition and/or the APA Style website for additional details.
There is a print copy available in Reserves (4th floor, east wing) for a two hour checkout.
Most Notable changes from APA 6th edition to 7th edition
Publisher location is NOT included for book citations.
In-text citations from works with three or more authors is shortened from the first time mentioned to (Hernandez et al., 2020)
Include up to 20 authors in the reference.
DOIs need to be formatted as clickable URLs such as https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1400256
Don’t include “Retrieved from” in front of a URL unless a retrieval date is needed.
For website citation include the website name, unless it is the same as the author.
Clear guidelines for citing media contributors that are not authors or editors.
Include as author
Host or Executive Producer
Online Streaming Video
Person/Group who uploaded the video
Citation examples are provided for different types of online sources including: podcasts, youtube videos, and social media posts.
Use the singular “they” as a gender neutral pronoun instead of he or she.
Clear format guidelines are provided for student and professional research papers.
More flexibility in font choices/size and include:
Lucida Sans Unicode 10
Times New Roman 12
The running head on the title page no longer includes the words Running head. It now only includes the title of the paper and the page number.
Student papers do not need to include a running head. (Unless specified from your instructor)
At the end of a sentence, use one space instead of two.
Image captions include title of image and a brief explanation. Also provide source and copyright information.
Do not put a period after the URL
You will need to provide as much information as possible.
Name of creator/creator/username of the image.
Role of the creator in parenthesis such as artist, sculptor, etc.
Year of creation in parenthesis. If there is no date available put (n.d.)
Title of image (in italics). If there is no title, create a description of the work.
Type of work (ex. illustration, map, cartoon, photograph, etc)
Retrieved from URL or database name
Last-name, first-name initial. (Role of the creator). (Year of creation). Title of image or description of work. [Type of work]. Retrieved from URL/database
The aurora borealis (see Figure 1) is a natural multicolor light display produced by solar wind particles seem in high latitude regions
Figure 1. Aurora Over Calgary and Spokane. This figure illustrates the aurora borealis aboard the International Space Station. Image credit: NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center via Flickr.
NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. (2012) Aurora Over Calgary and Spokane. [Digital Image]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/nasamarshall/14743833915/
Do you think the only reason your professor asks you to cite your work is because they suspect you of plagiarism? Wrong! Here are four reasons why you should cite!
Broaden Your Horizons
Your professors ask you to use a variety of sources because they know that your own thinking and ideas will be enhanced when you consult the ideas of previous writers on a topic. When you do this in your assignment, the reader will get the sense that you’re joining the conversation, that you respect other thinkers, and that you’re adding something new to the conversation.
Demonstrate a Sense of Debate
Don’t only uses sources that support your argument. Sometimes the most effective sources that don’t agree with your point of view. Introducing concepts from sources that show a varying points of view, puts your ideas in a more interesting and contested light. By doing this you show that there is something worth debating or analyzing further.
Just like you would want credit for your own work, writing or ideas, other writers deserve credit for their own work. Recognition is usually the only reward for scholarship. More importantly, giving credit allows your reader to recognize your contribution and ideas.
Further Research on a Topic
Your work on a topic helps further research on that subject. You do this by building and extending on the work of the writers you cite in your assignment. One person’s sources can therefore be an invaluable contribution to another’s research.