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Lisa Cheby
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APA Style

In-Text Citations

"In-text citation" means that you refer to (or cite) the ideas or words of another as soon as you write about them in your paper. There are several ways to do this: using quotation marks for exact words, summarizing or condensing without changing the meaning, and paraphrasing or using your own words.

Here are specific examples of ways to handle in-text citation in both APA and MLA format.

APA7th In-Text Citation Basics (Purdue OWL)

APA 7th In-Text Citations Specific Examples (Purdue OWL)

MLA In-Text Citation Basics and Examples (Purdue OWL)

Brief Examples of Quoting, Summarizing and Paraphrasing Using MLA (UCLA Library)

Structuring Your Paper: Advice and Examples

Writing an Education Research Paper (Boston College) (Brief discussion of typical parts of paper on education topics specifically.)

Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching: Components of a Research Paper (Online tutorial in which the key components of a quality research paper are identified and discussed with videos and examples.)

 

Citation Managers: What are They and Why Use Them?

Citation Managers are bibliographic management programs that will help you keep track of articles and books as you find them, organize your references and create bibliographies in 100s of citation styles (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, etc.)

They will also allow you to:

  • Import citations as you research from databases and catalogs
  • Save and organize citations
  • Attach PDFs of articles, when available
  • Embed citations (footnotes or in-text) into your word processing documents
  • Collaborate with others online
  • Discover the latest research

The most popular citation managers are EndNote and Zotero. Below are their differences. Remember to always check with your professor if you are not sure.

EndNote - Web version (EndNote Online or EndNote Basic) free to anyone; integrates with MS Word; the Instruction Labs at the University Library have the Cite-While-You-Write plug-in on Word for students to access their EndNote web accounts

Zotero - Free to anyone; integrates with MS Word and/or Google Docs; must be installed on your own computer 

Zoterobib- Free to anyone; allows you to create an instant bibliography from your browser on any devices.

Criteria Zotero EndNote and EndNote Web
Website http://www.zotero.org/

http://endnote.com/

EndNote Web: https://www.myendnoteweb.com/

Web based? Yes, works with Firefox browser and can sync with online account; connectors for Chrome and Safari available EndNote is a standalone app but it can transfer library to EndNote Web.
Operating System Windows, Mac, Linux Windows or MAC
Cost Free for basic account and the standalone app. Some cost for more online storage space Free for EndNote Web but $$ for the standalone app.
Import from databases Yes Direct export from specific databases
Import citation info from web pages Yes, also archives the page and you can add annotations only with EndNote Web bookmarklet
Attach associated files (PDFs, etc.) Yes, with option to attach automatically Yes, and can highlight and annotate PDFs

adapted from American University Library and Penn State University Libraries

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