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MUS 309: Traditional Music of the U.S.

Music Librarian

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Lindsay Hansen Brown

MLA Style (9th Edition)

What has changed since MLA 8th edition?   

  • Not much! MLA 9th edition is an expansion of the 8th edition with new sections on grammar, writing advice, mindful of inclusive language, expansion endnotes & footnotes, and new guidelines for annotated bibliographies.
  • URLs:
  • Continue: if a DOI is available it is preferred over a URL or permalink.
  • DOIs should now include the http:// and https://
  • For general websites, copy and paste from your browser, some will include the www. and some will not. Either is acceptable.
  • Full URLs are recommended but optional especially for long URLs that are three or more lines long.
  • You can shorten URLs to the general site if it is excessively long.
  • Don’t use shortening services such as bit.ly.
  • Remember, when getting a URL from a library database where you have to log in and is behind a closed paywall; use the permalink or stable URL provided by the database. Do not copy and paste the browser URL.  
  • If an article is issued by season (spring, summer, fall, winter) the first letter is now lower case.
  • The appendix includes over 30 pages of citation examples listed by publication format.
  • Shortening University Press publisher name. If the publisher includes University Press, abbreviate to UP. Example, Cambridge University Press would be shortened to Cambridge UP.

MLA Style Center: What's New with the Ninth Edition includes information on formatting your research paper, citation practice template, FAQs, sample papers, and quick guide. They also provide citation guideline for common titles of online works.

Books

Evaluating sources

What are Scholarly/Academic/Peer-reviewed Sources?

Scholarly/academic/peer-reviewed sources are sources written by experts and are reviewed by experts in the field before the article is published.

 

Why Do I Need to Evaluate Scholarly Sources?

You may consider scholars with subject expertise have authority in the area of your research topic and thus produce only good sources. However, like all types of sources and authorities, scholarly sources vary a lot by date, scope, method, and etc, making only some of them appropriate to cite in your research. Scholarly sources may have totally valid evidence but not so relevant to your research. 

 

How Do I Evaluate Scholarly Sources?

Finding a good scholarly source to use can sometimes be a messy process, but below are some questions you can ask yourself in order to determine if the academic article is worth using in your research.

  • Date: Some topics, such as those in the health sciences, require current information. Other subjects, such as geology, value older material as well as current. Know the time needs of your topic and examine the timeliness of the article; is it:
    • up-to-date,
    • out-of-date, or
    • timeless?
  • Usefulness: Is the article relevant to the current research project? A well-researched, well-written, etc. article is not going to be helpful if it does not address the topic at hand. Ask, "is this article useful to me?" If it is a useful article, does it:
    • support an argument
    • refute an argument
    • give examples (survey results, primary research findings, case studies, incidents)
    • provide "wrong" information that can be challenged or disagreed with productively
  • Impact: Scholars have combined standard research metrics, like scholarly output and citation counts, into formulas to measure and assess author and journal impact in new ways. There are usually different types of metrics for different purposes, but in general, you can pay attention to
    • the number of times an article was cited to evaluate the scholarly output of a scholar
    • the number of times articles published for a journal to evaluate the impact of a journal
    • metrics in databases as shown below

 

More information about factors to consider when evaluating scholarly articles

More information about understanding impact 

Library Lecture Slides

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition (official complete ebook)

Call number Z253 .U69 2003, ‚Äčavailable in print on the first floor of the library in the Learning Commons

Citing Archival Materials in Chicago 

Turabian Quick Guide from the University of Chicago Press

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 8th edition by Kate Turabian et al.

Call number LB2369 .T8 2013, available in print on the first floor of the library in the Learning Commons

Databases

APA Style Guide, 7th Edition

This guide is a quick introduction to the American Psychological Association (APA) 7th Edition Style for citations, basic format, and sample annotated bibliography. Please be sure to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th edition and/or the APA Style website for additional details.

There is a print copy available  in Reserves (4th floor, east wing) for a two hour checkout.

Most Notable changes from APA 6th edition to 7th edition

  1. Publisher location is NOT included for book citations.

  2. In-text citations from works with three or more authors is shortened from the first time mentioned to (Hernandez et al., 2020)

  3. Include up to 20 authors in the reference.

  4. DOIs need to be formatted as clickable URLs such as https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1400256   

  5. Don’t include “Retrieved from” in front of a URL unless a retrieval date is needed.

  6. For website citation include the website name, unless it is the same as the author.

  7. Clear guidelines for citing media contributors that are not authors or editors.

Media type

     Include as author

 Film 

 Director 

TV series

Executive Producers

 Podcast 

Host or Executive Producer

Webinar 

Instructor 

Online Streaming Video

Person/Group who uploaded the video

  1. Citation examples are provided for different types of online sources including: podcasts, youtube videos, and social media posts.  

  2. Use the singular “they” as a gender neutral pronoun instead of he or she.

  3. Clear format guidelines are provided for student and professional research papers.

  4. More flexibility in font choices/size and include:

    1. Calibri 11

    2. Arial 11

    3. Lucida Sans Unicode 10

    4. Times New Roman 12

    5. Georgia 11

  5. The running head on the title page no longer includes the words Running head. It now only includes the title of the paper and the page number.

  6. Student papers do not need to include a running head. (Unless specified from your instructor)

  7. At the end of a sentence, use one space instead of two.

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